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Moss and Lichen Communities (Biotic Class)

Component: Biotic

Unique Identifier: 393

Biotic Setting Benthic/Attached Biota
Biotic Class Moss and Lichen Communities
Biotic Subclass Freshwater Tidal Lichens
Marine Lichens
Freshwater Tidal Moss

Definition Tidal areas dominated by submerged or emergent mosses or lichens. Communities dominated by mosses are limited to freshwater situations. Although some mosses have been reported in tidal salt marshes, they have not been reported as dominant (Garbary et al. 2008). Lichens, on the other hand, occur in both freshwater and marine environments in relatively recognizable zones based on, among other factors, the extent to which they are submerged or flooded (Hawksworth 2000; Fletcher 1973; Gilbert and Giavarini 1997). Lichens are generally recognized as a symbiotic association with a fungus and an alga (or cyanobacterium) living together and forming patches or a visible pattern on the surface of the substrate.